Asylum Seeker: A person who is seeking refugee status in a country that is not his/her own due to a well founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of his/her country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.
Age-related dependency: the increased rate of dependency on the provisions of the welfare state due to age.
Birth Rate: the number of childbirths per 1000 persons per year.
Brain Drain: the emigration of trained and talented individuals for other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflict or lack of opportunity or health hazards where they are living.
Bretton Woods System: the system of international economic management which established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the major industrial state, signed in July 1944.
Citizenship: membership in a political community.
Death Rate: the total annual number of deaths per 1000 people.
Demographic Time Bomb: with an ageing population this is the fear that there will not be enough people working to support the increased number of retired people.
Destination Country: a country which migrants wish to get to.
Displaced Persons: people who have been forced to leave their habitual residence spontaneously in order to flee an armed conflict, situations of widespread violence or systematic huma rights violations, or to escape natural or man-made disasters or their effects..
Economic Migrant: a person moving out of his habitual place of residence to another place in order to improve his/her quality of life.
Emigration: the action of leaving ones native country for another country.
Family Reunification: the right of a person to reunite with members of his/her family living in a different country - the degree of closeness required varies from country to country, however, generally it is only available to spouses and children under 18 or other dependents.
Feminisation of the labour force: the phenomenon of more and more women joining the labour force.
Feminisation of Migration: the phenomenon of more and more women migrating indepepently of their families, often to seek work abroad as principal breadwinners.
Fertility rate: the average number of child births per woman.
Forced migration: synonymous with diplsplaced persons.
Free Movement of Workers: every citizen of the EU has the right to work and live in another
Funded Pension System: contributions are paid into a fund during an individual's working life, this fund is invested in assets and grows in line with the return on these assets.
Guest Workers: a person who lives and works in a foreign country for a limited period of time, doing low paid and usually unskilled work
Greying Population: the phenomenon of an increasing amount of elderly people in a society.
Gross Migration: the sum of the entries of immigrants into a country and the number of exits of emigrants.
Labour Migrant: a person who takes up residence and engages in a renumerated activity in a country of which he/she is not a national, excluding asylum seekers and refugees.
Immigrant: someone who intends to reside permanently, and not a casual visitor or traveler, in another country or region.
Immigration: the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently.
Irregular Migration: the movement of a person to a new place of residence or transit without valid documentation.
Internal Migration: migration within the borders of a country.
Migrant: a person who moves from one geographical unit to another across an administrative or political border, wishing to settle definitely or temporarily in a place other than their place of origin.
Nationality: a legal relationship existing between a person and a state in which the person becomes subject to the state's jurisdiction, even while not on the state's territory; in exchange the subject becomes entitled to the state's protection, and to other rights as well.
Orderly Migration: the movement of a person from his/her country of residence to another with valid documentation and in keeping with the laws of the state.
People Smuggling: the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a state of which he/she is not a national or a permanent resident.
People Trafficking: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or reciept of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion and exploitation.
Refoulement: the forced return of a person to a country where he or she faces persecution.
Refugee: a person, who owing to a well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationalilty, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside of his/her country of nationality and is unable, or owing to such fear, unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country.
Remittances: money sent home by migrants to their home communities.
Replacement Migration: the international migration that a country needs to offset population decline and population ageing resulting from low fertility and mortality rates.
Return Migration: the movment of a person returning to his/her country of origin or of habitual residence after spending at least one year abroad.
Rotation System: the action of a migrant coming to a country as a guest worker and then returning to his/her original country once his/her work visa has expired.
Sending Countries: countries that migrants originate from.
Snake heads: a term that denotes people traffickers.
Temporary Migrants (also known as Seasonal Migration): a migrant worker whose work depends on seasonal conditions and is performed only during part of the year.
Third Country Nationals: people from outside of the European union and the European Economic Area.
Unfixed Migrant: a migrant that does not take up residence in a particular place for a long term but tends to move from place to place frequently.
Work Permit: authorisation which allows a non-national to work legally on the territory of another country.